HIERARCHIC MODEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS:
FROM MOLECULAR BOSE CONDENSATION
TO SYNAPTIC REORGANIZATION
Hierarchic Model of Consciousness (HMC) presented here, is based
on new Hierarchic
In our model we consider the role of quantum collective
excitations, produced by coherent
The Brownian effects, which influence reorientation of
"tuned" MTs and increasing of
The full version of these paper is located at: http://arXiv.org/pdf/physics/0003044
A basically new hierarchic quantitative theory, general for
solids and liquids (Kaivarainen,
develops the Einstein’s and Debye’s models.
Collective excitations in form of coherent clusters,
representing at certain conditions the
Four strongly interrelatednew types of quasiparticles (excitations) were introduced in our
hierarchic theory: 1. Effectons (tr and lb), existing in "acoustic" (a) and "optic" (b) states
represent the coherent clusters in general case; 2. Convertons, corresponding to interconversions
between tr and lb types of the effectons (flickering clusters); 3. Transitons are the intermediate
[a<--> b] transition states of the tr and lb effectons; 4. Deformons are the 3D superposition of IR
electromagnetic or acoustic waves, activated by transitons and [lb<--> tr] convertons.
Hierarchical combination of the above quasiparticles leads to
origination of 24 (4!= 24)
In the general case the effectons can be approximated by
parallelepiped with edges
The dynamic equilibrium between all of collective quantum
excitations of water inside
The electrical recording of human brain activity demonstrate a
coherent (40 to 70 Hz) firing
The idea of Karl Pribram (Languages of the Brain, 1977) of
holographic principles of
The code way of keeping the information in the form of the
effectons and deformons as 3D
Hameroff and Penrose (1996; 1998) proposed the
"orchestrated objective reduction (Orch
tubulin dimers (alpha, beta) is about 10% during 0.5 s (arbitrary assumption), the quantum gravity
induced self-collapse to one of such state may occur. However, even accepting these calculations
as valid, their model do not explain the following crucial moments:
a) physical mechanism of nonlocality, providing distant thermal
and quantum coherency in
b) selectivity of mechanism of nonlocality, working just for
tubulins and not for other
c) biophysical "links" between nerve excitation and
self-collapsing of MTs system to one
The only way to ’save’ the idea of Penrose and Hameroff
about quantum gravity induced
It follows from Hierarchic theory based computer simulations,
that mesoscopic Bose
The evidence of Mesoscopic molecular Bose condensation at
2. Properties of Actin Filaments, Microtubules and Internal Water
There are six main forms of actin existing. Most general F-actin
is a polymer, constructed
is accompanied by splitting of phosphate group. The velocity of F-actin polymerization is
enhanced strongly by hydrolysis of ATP. However, polymerization itself do not needs energy.
Simple increasing of salt concentration (decreasing of water activity), approximately till to
physiological one - induce polymerization and strong increasing of viscosity.
The actin filaments are composed from two chains of G-actin with
diameter of 40 Å and
energy of thermal fluctuation.
Let us consider the properties of microtubules (MT) as one of
the most important
dependent on water activity aH2O see Section 13.7 of book: Kaivarainen 1995 and Kaivarainen,
2000c), concentration of Ca2+ and on the electric field gradient change due to MTs piezoelectric
properties. The alpha and beta tubulins are globular proteins with equal molecular mass
MM 55. 000 , usually forming alpha-beta dimers with linear dimension 8nm. Polymerization of
microtubules can be stimulated by NaCl, Mg2+ and GTP (1:1 tubulin monomer) (Alberts et al.,
1983). The presence of heavy water (deuterium oxide) also stimulates polymerization of MT. In
contrast to that the presence of ions of Ca2+ even in micromolar concentrations, action of
colhicine and lowering the temperature till 4°C induce disassembly of MT.
Microtubulesare hollow cylinders, filled with water. Their internal diameter about
din 140Å and external diameter dext 280Å. These data, including the dimensions of alpha-beta
dimers were obtained from x-ray crystallography (Amos and Klug, 1974). The length of
microtubules (MT) can vary in the interval:
The spacing between the tubulin monomers in MT is about 40 Å
and that between alpha-beta
Microtubules sometimes can be as long as axons of nerve cells,
i.e. tenth of centimeters long.
The viscosity of ordered water in microtubules seems to be too
high for transport of ions or
All 24 types of quasiparticles, introduced in our hierarchic
theory of matter (Kaivarainen,
Strong interrelation must exist between properties of internal
water in MT and structure and
cavitational fluctuations of internal water - (superdeformons) in the volume of
Each of dimers, composing MT, is a dipole with negative charges,
interactions (see Kaivarainen,
2000d) stimulate the growth
The equilibrium of "closed" (A) and "open"
(B) states of nonpolar cavities between and
The parallel orientation of MT in different cells, optimal for
maximum [MT-MT] resonance
The linear dimensions of the edge llb
of coherent water clusters -
It will be shown below, that this assumption fits the spatial
and symmetry properties of MT
The librational mobility of internal water molecules in MT,
which determines vlb
gr should be
The length of a orchestrated group of primary lb
effectons in the direction of
Results of our computer simulations for pure bulk
water shows, that the
It gives a possibility for equidistant (80 Å) localization of the primarylb effectons in clefts
between alpha and beta tubulins of each (alpha-beta) dimer in the internal core of MT.
Such a regular spatial symmetry of the internal flickering clusters distribution in MT is an
important factor for realization of the [optoacoustic-conformational] signal propagation of
configurational waves along the MT, accompanied by their bending. It is related to alternating
[closing <-->opening] clefts between alpha and beta tubulins. This large-scale protein
dynamics is correlated with dissociation/association of water clusters in clefts between
(alpha -beta) dimers of MT due to [lb/tr] convertons excitation with frequency ~10^7s¯¹.
The size oftr primary effectons in MT is significantly smaller, than that of lb ones and the
microviscosity of water in regions, occupied by translational effectons - lower. The average
angle between alpha and beta tubulins change and the cavity’s [open <--> closed] states
equilibrium shifts to the closed one as a result of conversion of lb effectons to tr ones
(dissociation of coherent water cluster).
The dynamic equilibrium betweentr and lb types of the intra MT water effectons can be very
sensitive to alpha-beta tubulins interactions, dependent on nerve excitation.
Fig. 1.Theoretical temperature dependencies of: (a) - the space between centers of primary
[lb] effectons; (b) - the ratio of space between primary [lb] effectons to their length; (c) - the
space between centers of primary [tr] effectons; (d) - the ratio of space between primary [tr]
effectons to their length.
Our hypothesis of IR superradiation, produced by water in MT’s
- is an inherent property of
effectons, radiating photons.
3. Role of Actin Filaments and Microtubules in Neuron’s Body
In the normal state of nerve cell the dynamic equilibrium the
gradient of ionic concentration,
Na+ and Cl- in space out of cell is bigger than in cell, the gradient of K+ concentration has an
opposite sign. The external concentration of Ca2+ (about 10^- 3M) is few orders higher than in
cytosol (about 10^- 7M) . Such a big gradient provide fast and strong increasing of Ca2+
internal concentration after activation of corresponding membrane channels.
At the "rest"
condition of equilibrium the resulting concentration of internal anions of
100. 000 V/sm
i.e. it is extremely high.
Depolarization of membrane usually is related to penetration ofNa+ ions into the cell. This
process of depolarization could be inhibited by selected diffusion of Cl- into the cell. Such
diffusion can produce even hyperpolarization of membrane.
As far the pairs of tubulins have the properties of
"electrets" (Debrabander, 1982), the
In turn, dynamics of tubulins of MT’s hollow core affects the
properties of internal ordered
[I]. Increasing the dimensions and life-time of coherent water clusters (primarylb effectons)
in the open nonpolar cavities between alpha and beta tubulins;
[II]. Destabilization of MT, increasing the probability of its partial disassembly and
disconnection with plasmatic membrane;
The stability of MTs in the nerve cell body is lower than that
in bundles of axon or cilia. It is
The LS-dynamics of tubulin dimers represent the change of
"bending" angle between alpha and
cavity between closed (A) and open (B) states. Such bending may be a result of macroconvertons
(flickering clusters) excitations with frequency: 10^6 -10^7 Hz (Kaivarainen, 2000a).
The [assembly<--> disassembly]dynamic equilibrium of the actin filaments in cells in terms
of colloid chemistry represents [coagulation<--> peptization] or [gel<--> sol] equilibrium. These
cycles are rapid and correlate with neurotransmitter release and nerve excitation (Miyamoto,
1995; Muallem et. al., 1995). The increasing of cell’s volume, accompanied the actin
orchestrated disassembly is a result of cell "swelling" due to osmotic diffusion of water from the
extracell medium. The decreasing of water activity in cell, inducing osmotic flow of water to cell
cytoplasm, is a consequence of increasing of "bound" or "hydration" water fraction after actin
microfilaments disassembly to huge number of subunits. The nerve cell body and dendrites
swelling can trigger the collective nonspecific opening of big number of ionic channels and
strong resulting postsynaptic potential (PSP) emergency. The bigger is resulting PSP the higher is
frequency of the nerve impulses, generated by this cell and penetrating via axon to other neurons
(Coombs, et al., 1957).
The new assembly of MT-system in nerve cell’s body is
accompanied by pumping out the
The [gel-sol] transition, induced by cavitational fluctuations
of water in cytoplasm
One of the important consequence of our HMC is that interactions
of distant neurons in head
3.1 The entropy-driven information processing
It leads from our HMC that changes of system of electromagnetic,
acoustic and vibro-gravitational
This process induces redistribution ofprobabilities of different water excitations in huge
number of microtubules. It means corresponding change of informational entropy <I>, related to
microtubules in accordance with known relations (Kaivarainen 1995; 2000b):
where:Pi is a probability of the (i) state with energy Ei , defined as:
For the total system the relation between entropy (S) and information (I) is:
where statistical weight of macrosystem:
the total number of internal water molecules in macrosystem of
interacting MT is:
[q is number of non degenerated states of 24 quasiparticles of intra MT water.
The reduced information of condensed matter (Kaivarainen, 2000d) to the number of
molecules (ni) in each kind of excitations:
- gives characteristic not only of quantity (I) but also about the quality of the information:
where N0 and
the Avogadro number and molar volume; ni
is a concentration of
The distant energy exchange between MT, accompanied by the
change of Pi
Our model consider fluctuations and dissipation, stimulating
[gel<--> sol] transitions and
The INTUITION from such point of view means the ability to
choose one right solution
4. Stages of Hierarchic Model of Consciousness
In accordance with our HMC, the sequence of following
interrelated stages is necessary for
1. The change of the electric component of neuron’s body
internal electromagnetic field as a
the concentration of these ions in cytoplasm. Activation of Ca2+ - dependent protein gelsolin,
which stimulate fast disassembly of actin filaments; 3. Shift of A<--> B equilibrium between the
closed (A) and open to water (B) states of cleft, formed by alpha and beta tubulins in tubulin
pairs of microtubules (MT) to the right as a consequence of piezoelectric effect, induced by
depolarization of membrane of nerve cell; 4. Increasing the life-time and dimensions of coherent
"flickering" water clusters in MT, representing the 3D superposition of de Broglie standing
waves of H20 molecules in hollow core of MT. It is a result of the water molecules
immobilization by ’open’ nonpolar clefts of (alpha-beta) dimers in MT; 5. Increasing the superradiance
of coherent IR photons induced by synchronization of quantum transitions of the effectons
between acoustic and optic like states. Corresponding increasing of probability of
superdeformons (cavitational fluctuations) excitation in water of cytoplasm; 6. The disassembly
of actin filaments system to huge number of subunits, [gel--> sol] transition and increasing of
water fraction in hydration shell of proteins in cytoplasm. This transition is a result of
cavitational fluctuations and destabilization of actin filaments by Ca2+ . Corresponding
decreasing the water activity in cytoplasm - increases strongly the passive osmotic diffusion of
water from the external volume to the cell; 7. As a consequence of previous stage, a jump-way
increasing of the nerve cell body volume (pulsation), accompanied by disrupting the ( ) ends of
MTs with cytoplasmic membranes occur. This stage makes it possible for MTs to change their
orientation inside neuron’s body; 8. Spatial "tuning" - collective reorientation of MTs of
simultaneously excited neurons to geometry, corresponding to minimum potential energy of
distant (but not nonlocal) electromagnetic and vibro-gravitational interaction between MTs and
centrioles twisting; 9. Decreasing the concentration of Ca2 to the critical one, when disassembly
of actin filaments is stopped and [gel<--> sol] equilibrium shifts to the left again, stabilizing the
new MTs system spatial configuration and corresponding nerve cell body volume and geometry.
This new geometry of nerve cells after fixation of (+) ends of MTs back to plasmatic membrane -
determine the new distribution of ionic channels activity and reorganization of synaptic contacts
in all excited ensemble of neurons after relaxation, i.e. short-term and long-term memory.
This cyclic consequence (hierarchy) of quantum mechanical,
physico-chemical and classical
stimulating [gel-sol] transition of cytoplasm, following after depolarization of nerve membranes.
This frequency for pure water, calculated on the base of Hierarchic theory (Kaivarainen, 1995;
2000a), is about 10^4 s¯¹. However, in viscous medium of cytoplasm it may be much lower
The process of cavitational fluctuations ’collapsing’ is
accompanied by high-frequency (UV
The dimension of IR superdeformon (3D superposition of IR
photon) edge is determined by
The experiments of Albrecht-Buehler (1991) revealed that just
around this frequency the
increase the probability of microtubules catastrophes. It’s one of the way to verify our model
Exceptsuperradiance, two other cooperative optic effects could be involved in
supercatastrophe realization: self-induced bistability and the pike regime of IR photons
radiation (Bates, 1978; Andreev et al.,1988). Self-induced bistability is light-induced phase
transition. It could be related to nonlinear shift of [a<-->b] equilibrium of primary librational
effectons of intra MT water to the right as a result of saturation of IR (lb)-photons absorption. As
far the molecular polarizability and dipole moments in (a) and (b) states of the primary effectons
- differs, such shifts of [a<-->b]equilibrium should be accompanied by periodic jumps of
dielectric permeability and stability of coherent water clusters. These shifts could be
responsible for the pike regime of librational IR photons absorption and radiation. As far
the stability of b-states of lb effectons is less than that of a-states, the characteristic frequency of
pike regime can be correlated with frequency of MTs-supercatastrophe activation. This effect
can orchestrate the [gel-sol] transitions of neuronal groups in head brain.
schematic presentation of the local, acousto-conformational and distant -
MAP– microtubules associated proteins stabilize the overall
structure of MTs. They prevent
neuron’s body the concentration of MAP and their role in stabilization of MTs is much lower
than in cilia. The local acousto-conformational signals between MT are realized via MTs -
associated proteins (MAP), induced by transitions of the cleft, formed by alpha and beta tubulins,
between closed (A) and open (B) states. The orchestrated dynamics of individual MT as quantum
conductor is a result of phonons (hvph) exchange between (alpha-beta) clefts due to lb/tr conversions,
corresponding to water clusters, "flickering", in-phase to [B<-->A] pulsations of clefts.
The distant electromagnetic and vibro-gravitational interactions between different MT are
the consequence of IR photons and coherent gravitational waves exchange. The corresponding
two types of waves are excited as a result of orchestrated (a<--> b) transitions of water primary
librational effectons, localized in the open B- states of (alpha-beta) clefts. When the neighboring (alpha-beta) clefts has the alternative open and closed states like on Fig 2, the general spatial structure
remains straight. However, when [A<-->B] equilibrium of all the clefts from one side of MT are
shifted to the left and that from the opposite side are shifted to the right, it leads to bending of
MT. Coherent bending of MTs could be responsible for [volume/shape] vibrations of the nerve
cells and the cilia bending.
TheBrownian effects, which influence reorientation of MTs system and probability of
cavitational fluctuations, stimulating [gel - sol] transition in a course of nerve cells tuning and
excitation-relaxation cycles - represent in our model the non-computational element of
consciousness. Other models (Wigner, 1955 and Penrose, 1994) relate this element to wave
Audio/Video Signals Skin Transmitter, based on HMC
We propose the idea of new device, where the laser beam with
The direct and feedback reaction between brain centers,
responsible for audio and video
One of the important consequence of our Hierarchic model of
consciousness is related to
Verification of these important consequences of our model and
elaboration of Audio/Video
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