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Journal of Non-Locality and Remote Mental Interactions Vol. I Nr. 1


TGD inspired theory of consciousness and biosystems as macroscopic quantum systems

Matti Pitkänen

Postal address:
Department of Physical Sciences, High Energy Physics Division, PL 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Home address:
Kadermonkatu 16, 10900, Hanko, Finland




In this introductory article I summarize briefly what Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD) and TGD inspired theory of consciousness are and describe the speculative picture about biosystems as macroscopic quantum systems provided by TGD. Also the applications of TGD to brain consciousness are discussed. The identification of quantum jump between quantum histories as a moment of consciousness reduces quantum measurement theory to fundamental physics. The identification of self as a subsystem able to remain unentangled in subsequent quantum jumps provides a quantum theory of observer and one can identify self also as a fundamental statistical ensemble. The notion of manysheeted spacetime allows to understand how biosystems manage to be macroscopic quantum systems. Topological field quantization implies that also classical fields have particle like aspects: these particle like aspects are crucial for the models of sensory qualia, sensory representations and long term memory as well as for the general model of control and coordination in living matter. One can fairly say that living systems have, besides the ordinary physical body, also an electromagnetic body (actually a hierarchy of them). A further generalization of the spacetime concept involves the introduction of p-adic topologies besides the real topology. p-Adic spacetime regions are identified as cognitive representations for the real regions and thus correspond to the 'mind stuff' of Descartes.


Table of contents

1. Introduction

2.TGD in nutshell
2.1 Spacetimes as a 4-D surfaces in 8-D imbedding space
2.2 The notion of manysheeted spacetime
2.3 Quantum TGD
2.4 p-Adic physics as physics of cognition, intention, and anticipation

3.TGD inspired theory of consciousness
3.1 New elements
3.2 Quantum jump between quantum histories as a generalization of quantum measurement theory
3.3 The notion of self requires p-adic physics
3.4 Self as the fundamental statistical ensemble
3.5 Tripartistic world view
3.6 New view about time

4. Biosystems as macroscopic quantum systems
4.1 Basic new physics effects
4.2 Applications at the level of biocontrol and coordination

5. Application at level of brain consciousness
5.1 Development of ideas
5.2 A possible vision about quantum brain

6. Bibliography

7. Figures


About notation

I have not been able to avoid totally the use of greek letters and mathematical symbols in the text. I have chosen to represent them in latex code since it is probably familiar to many readers. Thus greek letters are denoted by symbols like \Psi, \alpha, \Delta, \tau. ^n signifies upper index n (say in symbol M^4 for Minkowski space or in n:th power x^n of x). Lower index n is expressed as _n (say x_n or CP_2). Square root of x is expressed as \sqrt{x}. Sum of elements x_n is expressed as SUM_n x_n. x propto y reads x is proportional to y. X times Y denotes Cartesian product of spaces X and Y and x times y denotes the ordinary product of numbers x and y. x \pm y denotes for x plusminus y. x\simeq y can be read as x=about y. and x\sim y can be read as x =roughly about y. \infty denotes for infinity.


1. Introduction

In this introductory article I summarize briefly what Topological Geometrodynamics (TGD) and TGD inspired theory of consciousness are and describe the speculative picture about biosystems as macroscopic quantum systems provided by TGD. Also the applications of TGD to brain consciousness are discussed. More detailed representations can be found from the online books "TGD inspired theory of consciousness with applications to biosystems" and "Genes, Memes, Qualia, and Semitrance" at my homepage. The online books "Topological Geometrodynamics" and "TGD and p-Adic numbers" represent the recent view about TGD as a unification of fundamental interactions. In the sequel my aim is to write more detailed articles about various topics touched in this introductory article trying to give an overview about the recent situation in TGD inspired theory of consciousness.


2. TGD in nutshell

The online books "Topological Geometrodynamics" and "TGD and p-Adic numbers" provide a concice representation about TGD as a unification of fundamental interactions: in the following only the basic ideas and consequences of TGD are discussed.

2.1 Spacetimes as a 4-D surfaces in 8-D imbedding spaces

Topological Geometro-Dynamics (TGD) can be regarded as a unified theory of fundamental interactions. TGD was originally an attempt to construct a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation. Spacetime, rather than being an abstract manifold endowed with a pseudo-Riemannian structure, is regarded as a 4-surface in the 8-dimensional space H=M^4_+\times CP_2, where M^4_+ denotes the interior of the future light cone of the Minkowski space (to be referred as light cone in the sequel) and CP_2= SU(3)/U(2) is the complex projective space of two complex dimensions ( see the appendix of [TGD] and Fig. 1 ). The size of CP_2 which is about 10^4 Planck lengths replaces Planck length as a fundamental length scale in TGD Universe.

The identification of the spacetimes as a submanifolds of M^4_+\times CP_2 leads to Poincare invariance broken only in cosmological scales and solves the conceptual difficulties related to the definition of the energy-momentum in General Relativity. Even more, sub-manifold geometry, being considerably richer in structure than the abstract manifold geometry behind General Relativity, leads to a geometrization of all basic interactions and elementary particle quantum numbers. In particular, classical electroweak gauge fields are obtained by inducing the spinor curvature of CP_2 to the spacetime surface. One can say, that the mere hypothesis that spacetimes are representable as 4-surfaces of M^4_+\times CP_2 realizes Einstein's great dream in a very elegant and economical manner.

2.2 The notion of manysheeted spacetime

TGD approach forces a generalization of the conventional spacetime concept to what might be called manysheeted spacetime or 'topological condensate'. The topologically trivial 3-space of General Relativity is replaced with a 'topological condensate' containing matter as particle like 3-surfaces "glued" to the topologically trivial background spacetime sheet by extremely tiny connected sum (wormhole) contacts having CP_2 size connecting the spacetime sheets (see Fig. 2). Spacetime sheets can be connected to each other also by join along boundaries bonds (see Fig. 2)

Spacetime sheets have outer boundaries and form a hierarchical structure. Macroscopic material bodies are identified as 3-surfaces with boundary identified as the outer surface of the macroscopic body. For instance, my physical body is a spacetime sheet with my skin representing its outer boundary whereas external world is represented by a larger spacetime sheet at which the spacetime sheet representing my body is 'topologically condensed'. This generalization implies a radical reformulation of the condensed matter physics. Spacetime sheets are connected to each other by wormhole contacts and join along boundaries bonds. Various new physics effects related to the manysheeted spacetime concept are discussed in the four books about TGD: see for instance, the chapters "TGD and Nuclear Physics" and "Anomalies Explainable by TGD Based Spacetime Concept" of [padTGD].

Manysheeted spacetime concept is especially important in TGD inspired theory of consciousness and its applications to biosystems [cbook,cbook2] since it makes possible macroscopic quantum systems. The reason is simply that the large non-atomic spacetime sheets contain very few elementary particles so that the temperature at these spacetime sheets can be extremely low and therefore various kinds of macroscopic quantum phases are possible.

The basic prediction of TGD is that the sign of energy depends on the time orientation of the spacetime surface so that energy can be also negative as opposed to situation in standard physics. For instance, pairs of spacetime sheets with opposite energies can be generated from vacuum. This makes possible an effective overunity production of energy, a mechanism of coherent locomotion, classical signalling to the direction of the geometric past and many other exotic effects which could be important in living matter.

Absolute minimization of so called Kähler action is the fundamental variational principle of TGD and assigns to a given 3-surface X^3 a classical spacetime surface X^4(X^3) which is much like Bohr orbit going through a fixed point in wave mechanics. Another useful analogy is four-dimensional soap film spanned by a 3-dimensional frame which minimizes instead of its area a non-linear counterpart of Maxwell action. The variational principle is characterized by classical non-determinism caused by enormous vacuum degeneracy and this forces a generalization of the notion of 3-surfaces in order to achieve classical determinism in a more general sense. 3-surfaces are in general unions of disjoint 3-surfaces with timelike separations rather than single time=constant snapshots of the spacetime surface. In particular, spacetime sheets with finite time duration, 'mindlike' spacetime sheets, are possible and are identified as geometric correlates of selves in TGD inspired theory of consciousness (see Fig. 3).

2.3 Quantum TGD

The basic manifesto behind quantum TGD is the geometrization of not only classical physics but also of quantum theory. Only the notion of quantum jump remains outside the geometrization program.

a) The arena of quantum dynamics is the infinite-dimensional space CH of all possible 3-surfaces of H=M^4_+\times CP_2. Since one can assign to a given 3-surface X^2 a unique spacetime surface X^4(X^3), one could equivalently speak of the space of four-surfaces satisfying the field equations defined by the fundamental variational principle. This space is geometrized by providing it with a metric and spinor structure crucial providing geometrization of distance measurement and spin. The infinite-dimensionality of the space CH has dramatic implications: the mere requirement that the metric exists and allows Riemann geometry fixes the metric essentially uniquely. Also the choice of the imbedding space H is fixed to H=M^4_+\times CP_2 since maximal symmetries are required in order that the configuration space geometry exists mathematically.

b) There is no quantization involved: physical states correspond to classical spinor fields in the configuration space of 3-surfaces and fermionic oscillator operators have purely geometric interpretation. Configuration space spinors (as opposed to spinor field) correspond to the states of ordinary quantum field theories. The limit when 3-surfaces are reduced to points gives ordinary quantum field theory.

As far as theory of consciousness is considered, the fundamental feature of the configuration space is that it has two kinds of degrees of freedom.

a) The degrees of freedom in which metric is nonvanishing correspond to quantum fluctuating, non-classical degrees of freedom.

b) The degrees of freedom in which metric vanishes correspond to what I call zero modes and are purely TGD based prediction basically due to the non-point like character of particles identified as 3-surfaces. Zero modes are the counterparts of the classical macroscopic variables and in every quantum jump a localization in zero modes occurs: this process mathematisizes the phenomenological notion of state function reduction. For instance, particle spin corresponds to a quantum variable whereas the configuration of the needle of the measurement apparatus representing spin direction corresponds to a zero mode.

The replacement of point like particle with 3-surface means giving up the locality of the physics at spacetime level: physics is however local at the level of configuration space containing 3-surfaces as its points. For instance, classical EPR nonlocality is purely local phenomenon at the level of configuration space. Besides allowing to get rid of the standard infinities of the interacting local field theories, the non-locality explains topologically the generation of structures, in particular biological structures which correspond to spacetime sheets behaving as autonomous units.

Quite recently a considerably more general view about quantum TGD as a generalized number theory has emerged: this view is also relevant from the point of view of consciousness theory and the interested reader can consult the chapter "TGD as a Generalized Number Theory" of [TGD] for this approach.

2.4 p-Adic physics as physics of cognition, intention, and anticipation

p-Adic number fields R_p are labelled by primes p=2,3,5,... and, just like real numbers, they can be regarded as completions of rational numbers q=m/n, m,n integers to contain the p-adic counterparts of algebraic and transcendental numbers. p-Adic numbers emerged to TGD first only as an effective mathematical tool but it has turned out that p-adic physics is fundamental element of TGD.

TGD spacetime decomposes into regions obeying real and p-adic topologies (see Fig. 4). p-Adic regions obey the same field equations as the real regions but are characterized by p-adic non-determinism since the functions having vanishing p-adic derivative appearing as integration constants of differential equations are pseudo constants which are piecewise constant functions. Therefore one cannot fix the solutions of field equations or of equations of motion by giving the initial values of dynamical variables for fixed value of time (for instance, initial positions and velocities are integration constants for Newton's equations and fix the solution). Pseudo constant depends on a finite number of positive pinary digits of its arguments (x= \sum x_np^n in f(x) is replaced by x_N= \sum_{n < N} x_np^n). This means that p-adic spacetime regions are obtained by glueing together regions for which integration constants are genuine constants.

The natural interpretation of the p-adic regions is as cognitive representations of the real physics occurring in real regions. The freedom of imagination is due to the p-adic non-determinism. p-Adic regions perform mimicry and make possible for the Universe to form cognitive representations about itself. In this vision real/p-adic mindlike spacetime sheets are interpreted as geometric correlates of sensory/imagined experiences. p-Adic regions provide also geometric correlates for intentionality.


3. TGD inspired theory of consciousness

The basic notions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness are quantum jump between quantum histories identified as a moment of consciousness and the notion of self as a subsystem able to remain unentangled during subsequent quantum jumps. Self hierarchy with the entire Universe at the top is the basic prediction and subselves of self are identified as mental images of self.

3.1 New elements

The basic new elements as compared to standard physics based theories of consciousness are the new view about time and quantum state allowing to resolve the basic paradoxes of modern physics, the notion of manysheeted spacetime; the non-determinism of the fundamental variational principle determining the dynamics of the spacetime surfaces; and p-adic numbers.

a) General coordinate invariance forces to replace quantum state as time=constant snapshot with entire quantum history with can be regarded as a generalition for the solution of Schrödinger equation describing entire universe. Classical histories correspond to spacetime surfaces.

b) Since quantum jumps occur between quantum histories, the non-determinism of quantum jump is outside the spacetime and the space of quantum states. This solves the basic paradox of quantum measurement theory. Time evolution by quantum jumps, subjective time development, corresponds to hopping in the space of solutions of the field equations.

c) This view forces to differentiate between subjective time and geometric time. Geometric time is the fourth coordinate for spacetime surfaces whereas subjective time corresponds to a sequence of quantum jumps identified as moments of consciousness. The complete space-time democracy has most profound implications concerning the interpretation of the theory.

d) The generalization of the spacetime concept involving in an essential manner also the classical non-determinism of the basic variational principle defining spacetime surface X^4(X^3) associated with a given 3-surface X^3, allows to understand how the correspondence between geometric and subjective time emerges. The point is that mindlike spacetime sheets with a finite geometric time duration and a well defined temporal center of mass coordinate become possible. These mindlike spacetime sheets serve as geometric correlates for conscious selves and one can understand the emergence of psychological time and its arrow.

3.2 Quantum jump between quantum histories as a generalization of quantum measurement theory

T(opological)G(eometro)D(ynamics) inspired theory of consciousness can be regarded also as a generalization of quantum measurement theory. The connection comes from the identification of quantum jump as a moment of consciousness and replacement of the notion of the external observer with the concept of 'self' identified as a subsystem able to remain unentangled during subsequent quantum jumps.

The quantum jump has turned out to have a complex anatomy: the counterpart of the unitary U process of Penrose is followed by the TGD counterpart of state function reduction which in turn is followed by the TGD counterpart of state preparation resulting from a cascade of self measurements. This generalization of quantum measurement theory opens the black boxes of state function reduction and preparation by combining them in the notion of quantum jump between quantum histories.

3.3 The notion of self requires p-adic physics

The very definition of the notion of self as a system able to remain unentangled during subsequent quantum jumps requires p-adic numbers. The reason is that the un-entangled state of two subsystems is unstable unless they correspond to different number fields in which case entanglement is not possible at all unless one assumes that entanglement coefficients are rational and thus can be thought to belong to any number field. In purely real context the only self would be the entire Universe: subselves inside real self are p-adic islands in the sea of real numbers.

As alredy noticed, the inherent non-determinism of the p-adic field equations is identified as non-determinism of imagination which is an essential element of cognition. p-Adic spacetime regions represent the 'mind stuff', geometric correlate for cognition, they are however not conscious. The transformations of intentions to actions occur in quantum jumps in which p-adic spacetime region is replaced with a real one whereas sensory input transforms to thought in the reverse transition. This mechanism should apply not only to the ordinary volitional acts but also to various forms of psychokinesis. p-Adic spacetime regions are obviously the TGD counterpart for the mind stuff of Descartes and dualism relates material world and cognitive representations which both are Zombies.

The great challenge is to build concrete models for p-adic physics of cognition and intention at brain level and for the dynamics of p-adic--real transitions as dynamics of volition and formation of cognitive representations. Considerable progress has occurred in this respect quite recently (see the chapters "Quantum model of Cognition" of [cbookI]} and "Spectroscopy of Consciousness of [cbookII]).

3.4 Self as the fundamental statistical ensemble

The notion of self as a subsystem able to remain unentangled and able to perform quantum jumps in this state implies also a connection with statistical physics, which is also a black sheet in the family of various physics. Self corresponds to the sequence of quantum jumps for subsystem and the final states of these quantum jumps define what might be called a fundamental statistical ensemble. The contents of consciousness of self are determined as a statistical average over experiences associated with individual quantum jumps. Self has subselves and self experiences also subselves of subself as a statistical ensemble.

Statistical physics approach leads to a general vision about qualia. Various primary sensory qualia are assumed to have as correlates various quantum number and zero mode increments. At least part of the contents of conscious experience is determined by the statistical averages over various quantum number and zero mode increments. The entropies associated with the distributions of the increments characterize how fuzzy the mental image associated with a given subself (mental image) is. Quantum number increments correspond to the so called non-geometric qualia (such as colors and odours) whereas zero mode increments correspond to the geometric qualia (shapes, sizes, orientations,...). A general division to generalized kinesthetic resp. chemical qualia associated with the increments of conserved quantum numbers resp. various particle numbers is possible. In particular, color qualia relate to the basic symmetries of the imbedding space and one can understand the basic characteristics of color vision (number of completemenary color pairs, color opponency). Emotions can be understood as entropy-related qualia in this picture: the rate for the generation of entropy associated with the distribution of quantum number increment defines an emotional quale with positive/negative emotion corresponding to decrease/increase of the entropy. This view is consistent with the identification of peptides as molecules of emotion and as information molecules.

3.5 "Holy trinity" of existences

The new tripartistic view about existence differs from monistic and dualitic theories. There is 'holy trinity' of existences and dynamics.

a) The dynamics defined by the absolute minimization of the so called Kähler action corresponds to the dynamics of material existence, with matter defined as "res extensa", three-surfaces in 8-dimensional space H=M^4_+\times CP_2.

b) The dynamics defined by the action of the unitary time development operator U in the space of quantum histories, is the counterpart of U process of Penrose and of the ordinary Schrödinger time evolution U(-t,t), t---> \infty and can be regarded as 'informational time development' occurring at the level of objective existence. It is however un-necessary and also impossible to assign real Schrödinger time evolution with U.

c) The dynamics of quantum jumps between quantum histories corresponds to the dynamics of subjective existence.

The "holy trinity" implies that the basic problems of monistic and dualistic theories of consciousness (in particular so called hard problem) are circumvented. The classical non-determinism of the Kähler action is however crucial for understanding the notion of psychological time.

3.6 New view about time

Perhaps the most profound implications of TGD inspired theory of consciousness related to the concept of time. There are two times and two causalities. The geometric time appearing in the field equations defining the spacetime surfaces and the subjective time defined by the sequence of quantum jumps. The causality associated with the geometric time is the causality of the classical laws of Nature related to passive events whereas the causality of the subjective time is the causality of deeds.

This distinction solves the paradox resulting from the non-determinism of state function collapse contra determinism of Schrödinger equation when one erranously identifies subjective time with geometric time. The two times have quite different properties. The dynamics with respect to subjective time is dissipative and irreversible whereas the dynamics with respect to geometric time is non-dissipative and reversible. Subjective future does not exist whereas geometric future exists and is in same position as the geometric past. These differences solve an impressive collection of paradoxes of modern physics.

The contents of our sensory experience is localized around a definite value of geometric time. This seems to be in conflict with the hypothesis that quantum jumps occur between entire quantum histories suggesting that this kind of localization cannot occur. The solution is based on the non-determinism of the fundamental variational principle of the theory predicting the existence of spacetime surfaces differing only in a finite spacetime volume which means that the non-determinism of quantum jump and therefore also contents of conscious experience can be localized in a finite time interval. The so called mindlike spacetime sheets having a finite time duration and serving as correlates of selves realize this idea concretely. Psychological time can be defined as a center of mass time coordinate for the mindlike spacetime sheet and since spacetime surfaces are located inside future lightcone it is plausible that mindlike spacetime sheets drift gradually to the direction of the geometric future so that the arrow of psychological time results (see Fig. 3).

Psychological time becomes a local concept. This means that the entire spacetime surface must be regarded as a living system. This picture leads to the paradigms of the four-dimensional society and four-dimensional brain (see the chapter "Time and Consciousness" of [cbookI]). The civilizations of the geometric future and past exist subjectively now. My own body is lived through again and again and p-adic evolution implies that the quality of these relived lives improves in a statistical sense. Also classical and quantum communications between civilizations of past and future are in principle possible: there are even claims for the observations of this kind of signalling to the direction of past [Lavrentiev]. The hitherto most convinging TGD inspired model of long term memories relies on quantum ccommunication between the brain of the geometric past and geometric now. What happens that the self at geometric now quantum entangles with the self of the geometric past and the experience is shared. Precognition is in principle also possible.

In quantum jump also our geometric past changes. This predicts various kinds of causal anomalies in which cause apparently occurs before effect. This kind of effects has been documented in brain science by Libet and in parapsychology by various experimenters [Deeke, BR1, BR2]. What is fascinating is that the geometric past could change even in a time scale of years: even this is a testable prediction and there is indeed support for this effect [Peoch].


4. Biosystems as macroscopic quantum systems

The crucial elements in the theory of biosystems as macroscopic quantum systems are quantum criticality of TGD Universe and the notion of manysheeted spacetime.

4.1 Basic new physics effects

Concerning concrete application of the theory at level of biosystems and brain, the notion of manysheeted spacetime is of crucial importance since it makes possible to understand how biosystems manage to be macroscopic quantum systems.

1. Generation of structures and topological field quantization

Manysheeted spacetime allows to understand topologically the generation of structures. Even the macroscopic objects of every day world correspond to spacetime sheets. The replacement of pointlike particles with 3-surfaces of arbitrarily large implies the crucial non-locality at spacetime level. Concerning the undestanding of bio-superconductivity the basic observation is that the space sheets which are much larger than atomic spacetime sheets contain very low densities of ordinary particles so that the temperature can be extremely low and macroscopic quantum phases are possible.

Topological field quantization implied both by topological reasons and by the absolute minimization of the Kähler action implies that spacetime surfaces are counterparts of Bohr orbits and have complex topology. This means that topologically relatively featureless linear Maxwell fields are replaced by extremely complex topological structures.

2. Magnetic flux tubes and MEs as basic topological field quanta

Magnetic flux tubes are the simplest topological field quanta of magnetic fields and familiar already from superconductivity. By the quantization of the magnetic flux the thickness of the magnetic flux tubes of Earth's magnetic field is of order cell size (few microns) and the superconducting magnetic flux tubes are ideal seats for one-dimensional ionic and atomic superconductors. Magnetic flux tube structures define what might be called magnetic body in TGD based model for brain consciousness.

The so called massless extremals (MEs) define an extremely general class of solutions of field equantions. MEs can be regarded as topological field quanta of radiation fields and are in a key role in TGD. MEs are ideal for classical communications for several reasons. They carry lightlike vacuum em and/or Z^0 currents propagating with light velocity without dispersion. MEs with a cylindrical geometry represent high precision classical signalling possible over arbitrary long distances. The lightlike vacuum current at given transversal section of ME is non-deterministic and thus optimal for coding classical information. MEs are also ideal for quantum communication and the lightlike boundaries of MEs act in a well-defined sense as quantum holograms. The lightlike em current associated with ME generates also patterns of coherent photons. MEs carry also so called supercanonical representations which are genuinely quantum gravitational states: state functionals in the set of 3-surfaces ('world of worlds') and thus represent higher abstraction level than ordinary matter. For these reasons MEs have taken the main role in TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

3. Also classical color and Z^0 fields are important

Also the classical color force and Z^0 force, which becomes strong in cellular length scale, play a key role in the new physics associated with the living matter. For instance, the classical Z^0 force explains the chiral selection occuring in living matter: in the standard model this phenonenon is a mystery since the weak interactions mediated by the quanta of Z^0 field are extremely weak.

4.2 Applications at the level of biocontrol and coordination

Some examples of application at the level biosystems are following.

1. Biological self hierarchy and p-adic length scale hypothesis

A model for biological self hierarchy which becomes quantitative by the application of the p-adic length scale hypothesis predicting a hierarchy of physically preferred length scales [padTGD]. For instance, p-adic length scale hypothesis allows to understand the special role of cell membrane length scale and cellular length scale as well as the resonance frequencies of EEG.

2. Homeostasis as manysheeted ionic flow equilibrium

A model for the biocontrol and coordination boiling down to a symbiosis of MEs with superconducting magnetic flux tube structures and ordinary matter at atomic spacetime sheets (see the chapter "Quantum Control and Coordination" of [cbookI]). Manysheeted ionic flow equilibrium is a mechanism by which very small densities of superconducting matter can control ordinary matter effectively. MEs in turn control supra currents at magnetic flux tube structures by magnetic induction, by acting as Josephson junctions, and by inducing magnetic quantum phase transitions at multiples of magnetic transition frequencies which are in ELF range for Earth's magnetic field. The model explains the anomalous effects of ELF em fields on biomatter [Cherry,Blackman] and strange findings challenging the notions of ionic pumps and channels [Pollack].

The effects [Smith] related to the imprinting and entraintment of frequencies representing homeopathic potency molecule, in particular the appearence of the frequencies as pairs (f_h,f_{ELF}) having homeostatically invariant ratio f_h/f_{ELF}\simeq 2\times 10^{11}, provide further guidelines. There are two structures involved.

i) MEs parallel to magnetic flux tubes which are scaled down versions for those associated with our sensory representations and with long term memory mechanism. Thus water memory would be conscious and based on the same mechanism as ours. ME have length equal to wavelength associated with f_h and have this frequency as a fundamental frequency. MEs are identifiable as classical geometric correlates for the quantum transitions of the potency molecule.

ii) Spacetime sheets associated with the blobs of liquid crystal water. f_{ELF} corresponds to the cyclotron frequency of the charged LC water blob in Earth's magnetic field. LC water blob provides a representation for the relevant rotational and possibly also vibrational levels of the molecule and amplifies resonantly f_h. LC water blobs can represent various biomolecules and amplify the frequencies f_h serving as their signatures. This makes possible a recognition mechanism based on common MEs giving rise to a resonant interaction ('alike likes alike' or 'singing in tune'). The mechanism might explain the generation of DNA conjugate strand, the ability of the aminoacid to find the corresponding RNA triplet, and the self assembly of the tobacco mosaic virus. Also the recognition of the invader molecules by the immune system might rely on the same mechanism.

3. Possible realizations of genetic and memetic codes

The simplest possible model for abstraction process predicts genetic code correctly and also what might be called memetic code (see the chapter "Genes and Memes" of [cbookII]). There are good reasons to assume that these codes are realized in many manners in living matter. A simple model for the laser mirror structure proposed on basis of experimental observations by Gariaev [Gariaev, Marcer] in terms of pairs of orthogonal ME-magnetic flux pairs associated with nucleotides could realize genetic code electromagnetically. These MEs presumably form a hierarchy with lengths varying up to body size (endogenous frequency f_h in GHz range). ME-magnetic flux tube pairs would not provide a mere copy of the chemical information but would define the genuinely electromagnetic part of the genetic information and guide morphogenesis in the length scales determined by their lengths. DNA thread would chemically code longitudinal degrees of freedom for a part of organism whereas MEs transversal to it would code for the transversal degrees of freedom (see the forthcoming chapter "Homeopathy in Manysheeted Spacetime",and the chapters "Genes and Memes" and "Manysheeted DNA" of [cbookII]. The homeopathic effects observed by Cyril Smith [Smith] suggest a second realization of the genetic code discussed in the chapter "Quantum Model for Cognition" of [cbookI].

The model for the mesoscopic EEG patterns associated with 1-2 cm regions inside brain observed by Freeman [Freeman] suggest a further realization for genetic code (understood here simply as a code with 64 code words) resulting when 126 bit codewords of the memetic code at neuronal level are compressed to 6-bit codewords of the genetic code at the mesoscopic level. p-Adic length scale hypothesis suggests that for the fundamental realization of memetic code the duration of codewords is .1 seconds and duration of single bit is about one millisecond. These are fundamental time scales in brain functioning. TGD based model for hearing leads to a realization for memetic code is in terms of cognitive neutrino pairs and predicts correctly the upper limit for audible frequencies.

4. Quantum model for EEG and nerve pulse

Quantum model for EEG and nerve pulse was one of the first applications of quantum TGD. The idea is that cell interior and exterior form weakly coupled superconductors connected by Josephson junctions. The simplest solutions of the model are soliton sequences depending only on time or on the longitudinal coordinate of axon. The first solution type is associated with standing EEG waves whereas the latter corresponds to a soliton sequence propagating along axon and could be associated with propagating EEG waves. It is tempting to identify nerve pulse sequences as being induced by the axonal soliton sequences. Stochastic resonance allows to amplify weak periodic input to a bistable system if noise with a suitable intensity is present. The signatures of stochastic resonance have been established in the time interval distribution for spikes [Gammaitoni]. The problem is that cell membrane is an excitable medium rather than bistable system. Josephson junction however represents bistable system and there is a strong tendency to assume that stochastic resonance occurs at the quantum control level.


5. Application at level of brain consciousness

5.1 Development of ideas

The understanding of brain consciousness is the challenge and test bed for the general theory of consciousness and vision about biosystems as macroscopic quantum systems.

a) The vision about universe as quantum critical quantum spin glass provides the general philosophy. Brain as a quantum spin glass paradigm allows to develop general visions and understanding about brain functioning but also mechanisms are needed.

b) The quantum model for nerve pulse and EEG based on weakly coupled superconductors formed by neuronal interior and exterior was the first attempt to understand brain at the quantum level. This model has gradually developed during years and is still developing.

c) The breakthrough came when I learned about the anomalous effects of ELF em fields on living matter [Cherry,Blackman] and led to realization that ELF MEs might be behind EEG in TGD framework and act as an electromagnetic lifeform controlling biomatter. It became clear that EEG is the most interesting signature of consciousness at our level of hierarchy whereas neurochemistry is a lower level phenomenon not so crucial when one wants to understand conscious experience at our level. The model of sensory qualia led to the notion of spectroscopy of consciousness according to which EEG is like spectrogram allowing to deduce huge amounts of information about contents of consciousness. The findings related to homeopathy have provided further valuable guidelines.

d) The model for sensory representations realized at magnetic sensory canvas; the model for mesoscopic EEG patterns representing 'features' based on ME and genetic code; and the identification of Z^0 MEs as the agent behind neuronal synchronization represent the last steps in process binding the ideas about quantum brain to single coherent whole.

5.2 A possible vision about quantum brain

TGD framework encourages strongly to give up the cherished belief about brain as a seat of consciousness. The following working vision seems to be plausible at least to me just now.

1. Brain and body as sensory organs of electromagnetic selves

In TGD framework life is self-organization phenomenon involving in essential manner Earth's magnetic field serving as template for the condensation of biomatter. In TGD universe our selves involve in essential manner electromagnetic field structures (topological field quanta) having size measured using Earth size as a unit. Our physical bodies can be seen as kind of sensory and motor organs of these electromagnetic selves. In particular, physical death can be seen only as a death of a mental image about physical body. These higher levels selves are multibrained organism analogous to multicellulars and use our brains (in particular during sleep) for their own purposes.

2. Model of sensory representations

The model for sensory representations on magnetic sensory canvas is based on a simple counter argument against standard view: if head rotates also sensory representations inside brain should rotate and we should experience this rotation. We however do not experience this rotation which suggests that the sensory representations occur in a fixed inertial frame, perhaps outside brain. 'Me as a computer sitting at is own terminal' metaphor leads to the idea that magnetic flux tube structures associated with brain serve as sensory canvas to which 'sensory data files' in brain are projected. This sensory canvas is outside of brain and has size which can be as large as Earth's size. MEs serve as projectors and frequency-place coding induces magnetic quantum phase transition at some distance along magnetic flux tube having slowly varying thickness: the distance is determined by the frequency. In this manner it is possible to assign, not only simple sensory qualia (presumably at 40 Hz frequency band) to the points of the perceptive field but also more complex features. Also the projection of data at delta and theta frequencies to manybrained magnetic selves representing higher collective levels of consciousness must be considered seriously. This idea has obviously far-reaching implications concerning various paranormal phenomena. The simplest assumption is that MEs and magnetic flux tubes form parellel pairs acting effectively as laser mirrors.

3. EEG MEs as correlates for features

Sensory canvas model splits sensory representations nicely from their production (the same occurs in computers!) and one of the remaining big challenges is to understand something about the general principles involved with the construction of the features assigned to the points of the sensory canvas.¨ The idea that mesoscopic EEG patters associated with the 1-2 cm sized regions of cortex and having average duration of order .1 seconds, might correspond to MEs providing electromagnetic representation of memetic code by rapid amplitude modulations of waves in alpha band by multiples of alpha frequency, is very attractive. This kind of patters could be associated with other larger regions and EEG rhytms in theta and delta range and represent information usually not conscious-to-us.

4. p-Adic physics of cognition and Z^0 MEs as synchronizers

A further basic challenge is to understand how p-adic physics as physics of cognition is realized in brain. Syncronized regions of brain define excellent candidates for subselves representing mental images: different sychronized brain areas could represent entangled subselves. Neuronal synchrony occurs in millisecond time scale. It is difficult to understand how this could occur if only neural circuits are involved. Rather, Z^0 MEs which are not visible in EEG directly should provide kHz rhytm serving as a pacemaker (note that kHz corresponds to the duration of the bit of the memetic code!).

The idea is natural since classical Z^0 force is strongest in cell length scale. Z^0 MEs are in passive and active states and passive state would be most be represented by p-adic Z^0 MEs representing thought/intention/plan.... When syncronization occurs seed stimulus at resonant frequency generates p-adic ME as a simulation of the oscillation and p-adic ME is resonantly transformed to real ME re-inforcing the seed of resonant oscillation so that syncronous regions are generated in phase transition like manner when syncronized region syncronizes region to which it send excitatory nerve pulse patterns. This same mechanism could be quite general and also behind some psychokinetic phenomena.



I am grateful to Lian Sidorov for a considerable help and encouragement during the preparation of the manuscript as well as for very stimulating discussions.


5. Bibliography

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[BR2] D.J Bierman and D. I. Radin (1998), Anomalous unconscious emotional responses: Evidence for a reversal of the arrow of time. http://www-psy.uva.nl/resedu/pn/PUBS/BIERMAN/1998/tucson/tucson3.html .

[Blackman] C. F. Blackman (1994), "Effect of Electrical and Magnetic Fields on the Nervous System" in The Vulnerable Brain and Enviromental Risks, Vol. 3, Toxins in Air and Water (eds. R. L. Isaacson and K. F. Jensen). Plenum Press, New York, pp. 331-355.

[Cherry] N. Cherry (2000), Conference report on effects of ELF fields on brain, http://www.tassie.net.au/emfacts/icnirp.txt.

[Deeke] L. Deeke, B. Götzinger and H. H. Kornhuber (1976), Voluntary finger movements in man: cerebral potentials and theory, Biol. Cybernetics, 23, 99.

[Freeman] W. J. Freeman (2001), Making sense of brain waves: the most baffling frontier in neuroscience, http://sulcus.berkeley.edu.

[Gammaitoni] L. Gammaitoni et al (1998) Stochastic Resonance, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 223-288, January. http://www.umbrars.com/sr/.

[Gariaev] P. Gariaev et al (2000), The DNA-wave biocomputer, International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems. Ed. Daniel Dubois, Published by CHAOS, Vol. 10, 2001.

[Lavrentiev] Lavrentiev M.M., Yeganova I.A., Medvedev V.G., Oleinik V.K., Fominykh S.F. "O skanirovanii zvyeozdnogo neba datchikom Kozyreva." Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1992, v.323, #4. (russian) ("On the scanning of the star sky with Kozyrev's detector.")

[Marcer] P. Marcer et al (2000), Quantum Millennium, Quantum Universe, Quantum Biosphere, Quantum Man- or What Physicists can teach Biologists, and Biology, Physics, International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems. Ed. Daniel Dubois, Published by CHAOS, Vol. 10, 2001.

[Peoch] R. Peoch (1995), Network (the journal of Medical Network edited by Peter Fenwick), vol. 62. For a popular article about animal-robot interactions see http://paranormal.se/psi/pk/djur.html .

[TGD] M. Pitkänen (1990) Topological Geometrodynamics Internal Report HU-TFT-IR-90-4 (Helsinki University). http://www.physics.helsinki.fi/~matpitka/tgd.html.

[padTGD] M. Pitkänen (1995) Topological Geometrodynamics and p-Adic Numbers. Internal Report HU-TFT-IR-95-5 (Helsinki University). http://www.physics.helsinki.fi/~matpitka/padtgd.html.

[cbookI] M. Pitkänen (1998) TGD inspired theory of consciousness with applications to biosystems. http://www.physics.helsinki.fi/~matpitka/cbookI.html.

[cbookII] M. Pitkänen (2001), Genes, Memes, Qualia, and Semitrance . http://www.physics.helsinki.fi/~matpitka/cbookII.html.

[Pollack] G. Pollack (2001), Cells, Gels and the Engines of Life, Ebner and Sons. http://www.cellsandgels.com/.

[Smith] C. Smith (2001), Learning From Water, A Possible Quantum Computing Medium , talk in CASYS'2001, 5th international conference on Computing Anticipating Systems held in Liege, Belgium, August 13-18. Abstract book published by Chaos.


6. Figures


Figure 1. a) Future light cone of Minkowski space. b) CP_2 is obtained by identifying all points of C^3, space having 3 complex dimensions, which differ by a complex scaling \Lambda: z is identified with \Lambda x z.


Figure 2. Wormhole contacts and join along boundaries bonds make possible transfer of energy, momentum, electric, magnetic and gravitational fluxes between spacetime sheets.


Fig 3. The mechanism giving rise to the arrow of psychological time. Since mindlike spacetime sheet has finite time duration it has well defined temporal center of mass coordinate. The breaking of the time reversal symmetry associated with the geometry of the future lightcone M^4_+ implies that mindlike spacetime sheet drifts quantum jump by quantum jump to the direction of the geometric future.


Fig 4. Spacetime surface decomposes into real and p-adic regions serving as geometric correlates for matter and cognition









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